You're already quite advanced compared to most users
That will power pretty much anything you throw at it from a GPU perspective. I see your particular model is non-modular which isn't great, but won't likely stop you from installing most GPUs.
All these things above tell me you're ready to upgrade to pretty much any GPU you'd like to use.
You should have no trouble with the NVIDIA GTX 1050, 1050 Ti, 1060, 1070, 1080, or 1080 Ti. If you wanted to go with their newer cards, you can choose (currently) from the RTX 2070, 2080, or 2080 Ti. Those newer cards might not be worth the price at this point, though.
Crashes happen specifically so that your computer is not damaged. The crash prevents worse from happening to your hardware, or is caused by your hardware. It depends on the crash. But the crash is only a symptom of a problem, rather than a catalyst to a problem.